- Ketogenic diet (KD)KD used since the 1920′s, is complex and time-consuming & needs direction from a trained dietician and physician. The child may need hospitalization for fasting, and the parents are trained to weigh, measure and prepare foods. Calories & fluids are restricted, and foods are calculated in exact amounts. The ketogenic diet includes 80% fat, 15% protein, and 5% carbohydrate; the ratio of fat to carbohydrate plus protein ranges from 2:1 to 4:1, with higher ratios seen as more restrictive but more effective.
- Modified Atkins diet(MAD)MAD version is less complicated. Patients do not need admission to the hospital, no fasting or dietician is required to plan meals. MAD is more “user friendly” version of the diet & can be recommended for older children, teenagers and adults. It is simpler to follow, less limiting socially, and more palatable.
- Low Glycemic Index diet (LGIT)LGIT recommends ingestion of foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains yields a slow, steady rise in serum glucose as compared with ingestion of refined grains. It recommends 40–60 g of carbohydrates with glycemic indices < 50 and 60% of energy from fat and 20–30% from protein.
- The Medium-chain Triglyceride diet This is a variant of KD which uses medium-chain fatty acids provided in oil form (MCT oil) as a dietary supplement.